Recent articles on nudity and naturism, January 1-15, 2021

  1. A First Summer At Sunfolk

    In March 2020 British Naturism, Britain’s national naturist organization, purchased a small landed naturist club that had been in operation since 1931, as reported here and here. The property, Sunfolk, is conveniently located about 40 km west of London. It’s also about a 5-minure walk from the better-known Spielplatz, which was founded only 2 years earlier.

    Perhaps because the club had been overshadowed by neighboring Spielplatz, club members had difficulty in maintaining the facility. BN’s purchase will allow for needed redevelopment and safety work. Although BN will own the property, BN won’t directly manage it. The pandemic precluded naturist use during the summer of 2020, but it provided an opportunity for necessary work to be done more quickly, so normal operation could resume in 2021.

    Sunfolk will no longer be a private members’ club, but will welcome members of BN and other naturist federations. BN will also use the facilities as a “campaigning” center where “influencers and policymakers” can learn about naturism first-hand and mingle with actual naturists. BN will also be using the property for naturist events and gatherings.

    Unfortunately, naturist organizations in the U. S. haven’t seriously considered doing something similar. In Southern California alone, 4 naturist parks folded during the past couple of decades, as well as a considerable number of others elsewhere in the country. Here in the U. S., we just don’t have any naturist organizations that tried to help.

    Realistically, because of large distances in the U. S., one place like Sunfolk would hardly be enough for the whole country. There should be several such places that could be managed like Sunfolk. There’s a desperate need for “influencers and policymakers” to learn what naturism is really like. But U. S. naturist organizations, apparently, don’t see that as part of their mission, or simply don’t care.

  2. 8 Incredible Experiences In Valley View Hot Springs

    Here’s another naturist-friendly article from the mainstream travel site Travel Awaits. (Earlier articles were mentioned here.) The subject of the article, Valley View Hot Springs, is a 176-mile drive southwest of Denver, through Colorado’s San Luis Valley. Not only the hot springs, but all the experiences there, and the property itself, are entirely clothing-optional. Even the showers in the toilet building are co-ed. What more could a naturist want?

    Any textiles who happen to visit unaware of the clothing-optional policies may not want to stay long. Yet, as the article notes, you may well find yourself sharing the place with families and their young children, couples of all ages, single men and women, mothers and daughters, and even some teens. In fact, there are about 11,000 visitors annually, so there’s lots of opportunity to chat and enjoy the company of like-minded others. But with over 2000 acres in the property, you can have solitude if you want it.

    What’s there besides the springs? How about, as the article notes, “endless hiking trails”? If hiking naked amid unspoiled natural scenery and vistas appeals to you, this would be the place for it. The springs are located on a 2,200-acre parcel of protected land owned and managed by the Orient Land Trust, which is a non-profit organization, so you won’t have to pay excessively to enjoy your visit. If you do plan to visit, take note of advice in the article about things like making advance reservations, available accommodations, and the fact that there are no hookups or dump stations for RVs.

  3. Love Your Body: Own how you look in 2021

    This article is from the free, “alternative” news magazine Now, of Toronto, Ontario. Being “alternative” means it deals with stories that almost all “mainstream” media would resolutely avoid. “Love Your Body” is actually a once-a-year feature of the magazine, appearing in January.

    Accepting and appreciating the body one has – even if not exactly always “loving” it – is a concept most naturists understand very well. It’s necessary for people who desire to be completely comfortable and at ease being naked, whether or not in the presence of others. But the article isn’t about naturism per se, even though all six individuals profiled are shown fully and explicitly naked – without any image censorship at all.

    The nudity here is totally appropriate, since a major theme (but not the only one) is about how people relate to their bodies. Other themes include feelings concerning gender, ethnic, and life-stage identity. These types of identity are entangled with each other, of course. Physical exposure of one’s body isn’t the only issue here, since emotional and psychological exposure is also involved. These things are often important issues for naturists – especially in the initial stages. However, the physical issues tend to disappear rather quickly the longer one is a naturist. Body acceptance is not only necessary for enjoying naturism, it’s greatly strengthened by naturist activity.

    When naturists recommend trying out naturism to a friend, the usual reaction is negative. Possible excuses typically include a belief that allowing others (except for an intimate partner) to see one’s naked body is “immoral”, forbidden by one’s religion, inappropriately “sexual”, “socially unacceptable”, or something similar. Or maybe they fear being considered “exhibitionists” who get a thrill from “flaunting” their naked bodies. But more likely is that most people assume they’d be embarrassed to go naked, since their body isn’t “perfect” enough.

    The usual – and appropriate – naturist response is that naturists are unconcerned about the appearance of anyone’s naked body. Why? Because physical appearance simply doesn’t matter, since body shame is psychologically unhealthy and needs to be overcome. Bodies come in many colors, shapes, and sizes. So what? Nudity isn’t just something naturists can get “used to”. More often it’s embraced enthusiastically.

    So naturists are able to enjoy nudity’s pleasurable feelings, without concerns that others who respect them – other naturists in particular – might be judgmental about body appearance. Actually participating in naturism may well be the best way to overcome body shame and accept one’s body as it is.

    This article from BuzzFeed News provides, on a single page, a summary (with pictures) of each individual’s take on the subject.

  4. Naturism during lockdown

    Donna Price and her husband John are British naturists who’ve been written about here a few times. (Here, here, and here) Donna is now well-known in British Naturism, since she volunteered to help relaunch BN’s Women in Naturism campaign a little over 2 years ago. She’s been a prominent spokesperson for the effort ever since. John is an equally enthusiastic naturist, and like his wife is naked fulltime at home.

    The news articles cited below seem suspiciously like deliberate PR stories, but that’s OK. Naturism fully deserves fair and accurate coverage in mainstream news media. That’s bound to bring it to the attention of people who’d otherwise have no idea what it’s actually about and may not even recognize the term.

    It’s significant that the first article touches on “nude walks” in the countryside, since the next item after this one gives an example of how such activity doesn’t always go too smoothly. Donna says that “the majority of responses they receive from fellow walkers are ‘actually very encouraging’.” And also, the responses are “not shock horror, majority of the time, I can guarantee that. A lot of people just say ‘good morning’ and carry on.” There’s no mention of what the minority of responses are like. If the couple has encountered serious harassment, let alone threatened arrests, they’re not saying. However, it seems likely that a woman out for a naked walk with her male partner is a lot less at risk from hassles than a naked man by himself.

  5. False arrest for nudity in England

    Half the stories here have been from Britain, and that could be since naturism gets considerably more respect there than in the U. S. (or most countries outside Western Europe, for that matter). The stories, however, aren’t entirely positive. Apparently there are still some British folks who haven’t yet been clued in that public nudity usually is legal in Britain, as long as it’s not sexual or intentionally offensive to others.

    Officers became involved only “after receiving several reports of a naked pedestrian”. A search eventually located the “offender”, an elderly bloke who was strolling naked around rural Waldridge Fell in September, about a mile outside the market town of Chester-le-Street. Police then arrested him “on suspicion of outraging public decency”. Although detained and questioned, he was cooperative and was subsequently released with no further action. The Fell is uninhabited open space. It’s close to, but not visible from, a residential area.

    The incident, however, didn’t make the news until three and a half months later, when the naturist Three Rivers Outdoor Club, based in nearby Newcastle, objected to a police Facebook post that summarized the incident but negligently failed to make clear that public nudity was generally legal in Britain. The group maintained that the post had put “them at risk after wrongly suggesting it was illegal to walk around naked.”

    A spokesperson for the group told the local newspaper “Our events are usually a liberating and joyful experience, but during one walk last summer, one of the ramblers had water thrown over them, whilst the assailant told the group that they shouldn’t be walking naked in public. It is wrong for Durham police to post misleading reports that suggest that public nudity is illegal, and it puts us at greater risk of harassment in future.”

    It’s interesting to read the comments on that Facebook post. Most are supportive of the naturist position. But a few are from the usual dimwits who agonize “but think about the innocent children who might see any naked people!” Even in Britain there are still some who are ignorant of both naturism and the country’s laws.

  6. 10 Benefits of Sleeping Nude You Should Know


    Last, but not least, here’s yet another article on the benefits of sleeping naked. The concept hardly comes as a surprise to almost all naturists. But it’s interesting how often it’s mentioned in more-or-less mainstream media. (See here for more references.) As noted in those references, sleeping naked can be a “gateway” to naturism. Perhaps naturist organizations should focus more on that and other gateways, such as naked yoga, naked hiking, naked exercise, naked life modeling, skinny-dipping in remote places, body painting, etc.

    All these things (mostly) encourage full nudity, but usually outside of traditional naturist venues or in private homes. Naturists, of course, probably enjoy some or many of these things. People who have no problems participating in such activities ought to be comfortable with at least some forms of organized naturism. But it would be good if individual naturists and naturist organizations made more efforts for outreach via gateways to others who know little if anything about traditional naturism.

Recent articles on nudity and naturism, December 16-31, 2020



  1. Naturist travel and vacations

    The website TravelAwaits seems to offer good information on a popular topic: travel and vacations. One nice feature is that it deals separately with a number of different types of travel, such as weekend getaways, family vacations, cruises, RVing and camping, budget travel, and a few others. Rather unusually for a travel website for the general public, naturist travel is also one of the types covered.

    Although December is not exactly the best month for naturist travel in the northern hemisphere, there are 3 articles offered in that month:

    • 8 Best European Nude Beaches
      Lists of “best” clothing-optional beaches are common, of course. But this list is a good one. As the article says, “You’ve got to hand it to the Europeans. When it comes to vacationing, they know how to do it properly. They don’t think twice about taking off for three weeks in the summer, nor leaving their clothes behind with their laptops.” Three of the beaches are in France, which has long been a top naturist destination, as explained here. The article’s first choice is Montalivet, for good reasons. (It’s the beach pictured above.)

    • The Ultimate Naturist Vacation Packing List: Things You Must Bring And What To Leave Behind
      Frequent travelers know pretty well what they need to bring with them. But there are a few additions (and deletions) to consider for a naturist vacation. You will need just a few clothes (at least for getting to the location), as few as possible. Depending on exactly what type of vacation you’re considering – camping, nude resort, or cruise – there may be some additional things to include.

    • 6 Reasons Nude Vacations Are Becoming More Popular
      If you’re an experienced naturist you know how good being naked feels (when done in a nudity-friendly environment). And lots of fun activities are even more fun without clothes. Once you’ve discovered this, you’ll know why nude vacations are becoming more popular.


    Previous articles on that site were: 8 Top Naturist Resorts In France and Everything You Wanted To Know About Being A Naturist But Were Afraid To Ask

  2. Growing up with nudists


    If you haven’t experienced being a child in a family in which it was normal, or at least not unusual, to wear nothing, you may well be envious of anyone who’s had that good fortune. Here’s an article from someone who had that experience – in a naturist camp, no less – until he was an adult. He kept a cottage there, which he used off and on for 30 years after he left.

    Michael Ruehle writes about the 25-acre naturist camp in Canada, where he spent his childhood living with his family. The camp, Sun Valley Gardens, has been closed for the last 15 years. At its peak in the 1960s and 70s, “there were about 500 adult members, and it was one of the largest nudist clubs in North America, with members coming from as far as Toronto, Montreal, Boston, and Cleveland,” according to Michael. This was in spite of its relatively small physical size.

    The camp was started around 1956 by his father, Karl, who had immigrated from Germany. He had been inspired by naturism in his own youth and wanted to continue after moving to Canada. Unlike many naturists in the 1950s (and even up to now), Karl was not secretive about naturism. He occasionally invited neighbors, local politicians, and news media to visit. As a result, “instead of being harassed, the place was quite quickly accepted by the authorities.”

    Michael goes on to write a lot more about the camp during the time it was most successful, but he says only a little about his own childhood experiences, except to note that
    We never concealed where we lived, so it was the subject of a lot of curiosity among the other kids. But most of my friends, male or female, were permitted to come visit me — another benefit of the “open house” policy, because their parents had presumably visited. I had another large group of friends at Sun Valley Gardens as well, who would be there either on weekends or for two or three weeks at a time, and I would see them every summer.

    Related information:

    • Nudists bare all for journalist June Callwood
      An actual 13-minute video from a 1961 TV interview of Michael’s parents.

    • SLIDESHOW SPECIAL | Naturism in Niagara
      A set of 40 slides, some in restored color, of historical views of Sun Valley Gardens in the early years. (The property has not been maintained and is now decrepit, as some recent pictures show.) There’s also a long recent article on the camp’s history.

  3. Local Opportunities for Naturism

    Rye is a town in the southeast of England, about 75 miles and slightly less than 2 hours from London. It’s on the coast and has a population of about 9000. The article here appeared in the local newspaper and could easily serve as a glowing advertisement for naturism. For example, here’s how it describes the activities of the local naturist group:

    East Sussex Naturists is a loose social group of naturists who, until 2020 closed most things down, were arranging visits to local art galleries, pub meals, yoga classes, regular weekly swims at local facilities, countryside walks and cycle rides in Kent and Sussex, ten-pin bowling and more – yes, and all without wearing clothes!

    Right there you have a variety of activities whose extent far surpasses that of most local groups in the U. S. – of which there are actually rather few anyway. Why aren’t there more? Part of the answer probably is that very few local news media these days would publish such a favorable report on naturism in their area. (Obvious, very likely reason: local naturists groups these days are not media savvy, and make little, if any, effort to cultivate good relations with their community and local media, unlike what Sun Valley Gardens did way back in the 1950s.)

    So, given the poor public relations efforts of most local naturist groups in the U. S. now, why should non-naturists have a positive opinion of naturism, let alone consider participating in a naturist activity? Why would any U. S. naturist (except for maybe a few in Florida living close to a naturist resort) think – even in their wildest imagination – that local media might offer such a positive take on naturism?

    General U. S. attitudes towards naturism are still, relatively speaking, in the stone age. And, if anything, only becoming less favorable as time goes on. Local news media (such as still exist, anyhow) simply reflect cluelessness, because, in the absence of outreach from naturist groups, the media just perpetuate existing uninformed attitudes. And that only magnifies the failure of the public to understand naturism.

  4. One in 10 employees enjoy working from home in the nude


    That finding is rather surprising – but what it really means depends on the details. It’s from a survey by Kaspersky Lab, a multinational cybersecurity company – whose headquarters is in Moscow. Hmmm. Its main product is antivirus software. The company has been suspected, according to Wikipedia, of including malware in some of its software. But that’s not the issue here, whether or not the suspicion is correct.

    Why would an antivirus software company have made such a finding, or even asked about it in a survey? The answer is that, because of the pandemic, a large percentage of company employees have been working at home instead of in an office. And so those employees don’t obviously need to wear customary office attire – or anything at all, for that matter. If the finding is correct, then there’s a good reason for many workers to want protection against malware on their computers from using the computer camera to spy on them.

    What’s not clear, however, is where the people who were surveyed actually live – and at what time of the year. If the finding is correct, then maybe something like 10% of the workers preferred being naked at home – hence are actual or at least potential naturists. But if the survey was done mostly in the summer, perhaps many who answered simply didn’t have air conditioning or want to use it. How many survey respondents were at home without others around? And were many of the respondents in Western Europe, where naturism is much more popular than in the U. S.? That would seem likely. But it’s an interesting finding anyway. When there’s no reason to wear any clothes – except the force of habit – why bother?

  5. 57 Reasons to get naked

    My own list, with more detailed explanations, is here. However, if anyone thinks they need several good reasons to get naked, they’re missing the point, which is that anytime it’s safe and comfortable to be naked, no other reasons are necessary. Most people who already enjoy nudity already understand this. They know that being naked just feels really good. However, almost everyone else will need extra reasons, and the more the better. So the article offers 57 good ones to choose from. Most of the reasons are in one of these categories:

    • Frequent nudity has a variety of health and emotional benefits.
    • If you seldom wear anything you’ll save money by less often washing clothes or buying new ones.
    • Becoming comfortable naked improves self-confidence and body acceptance.
    • Going naked promotes a sense of freedom from unreasonable social conventions.
    • Wearing nothing lets you just be yourself without needing clothes to project a particular image.
    • Socializing naked with others promotes better relationships.


    Many of these benefits are aspects of good mental health.

  6. Nudist New Year’s resolutions to make

    I’ve already compiled one detailed list here. It’s divided into sections based on how much naturist experience you’ve had. But the list in the present article has a large number of suggestions (in no particular order). Some of the items are things you may already do, but can just as well usually be done… naked, such as reading a book or watching a movie. Others involve more extensive effort.

    An especially important one that’s worth doing often is: “contact governments and nudist organizations to help with advancing nudism.” That should be done frequently! Include public officials at all levels – from your local community all the way up to state and federal officeholders. Those officials need to learn that naturists need smarter, less restrictive laws affecting naturist activities. They should also be reminded that naturism is good for the local tourist industry.


  7. Sleeping nude

    It’s kind of funny how often this topic is written about – as if it were a new idea to most people, who’ve never even considered it. Yes, there are very good reasons to sleep naked, as we’ve noted before. (Here and here.) But possibly one of the best reasons – which is almost never mentioned, except among naturists – is that sleeping naked all or most of the time is a “gateway” to naturism. If you go to bed naked often enough, you’ll realize that nudity is really comfortable. So you’ll have more motivation to be naked at other times besides when you lie down for the night.

Recent articles on nudity and naturism, October 16-31, 2020

  1. Avid gardeners pot, prune and bare all for National Nude Gardening Day

    World Naked Gardening Day is the first Saturday in May – provided you’re north of the Equator. But early in November is a better time for New Zealanders and Australians.

    The president of the New Zealand Naturist Federation is quoted in the article making a very important point: “This particular day is more for people who aren’t naturists to get involved and give it a go.” In other words, having a “naked gardening day” isn’t so much aimed at experienced naturists as people in the general public. After all, naturists will do their gardening naked anyway, if possible. But having a special day is a way to make the general public more aware of what naturism is and what naturists actually do.

    Since the first WNGD over 15 years ago, many people who’ve read about it or noticed it mentioned in social media may have decided to give naked gardening a try themselves at some convenient time, not just on WNGD – at least if they have a gardening area that’s sufficiently private. People who do that often realize that the experience is quite enjoyable. They may continue gardening naked simply to be able to enjoy the fresh air and sunshine. But they may also be motivated to learn more about naturism and to seek out more traditional naturist activities – even if they don’t actually consider themselves “naturists”.

    The bottom line here is that naked gardening can be, for some, a “gateway drug” to serious involvement in naturism. And it’s not the only such “drug”. A number of things, such as practicing naked yoga, naked hiking, or simply starting to sleep naked, can have the same effect.

  2. 6 Things You Can Do To Normalize Naturism Right Now

    Since you’re reading this, chances are you’re into naturism, or at least interested in it. If you are a naturist, you quite likely want your preference to be accepted by people who’re important to you. In short, you want it to be normalized – at least with respect to yourself. Ideally, you could be naked when you wanted to be, and others you know wouldn’t notice anything “unusual”.

    Of course, for most that’s not the “real world”. But it should be, so isn’t it worth some effort to change that? The article here lists 6 ways to help nudity become considered a normal, acceptable choice. The most important point is in the conclusion: “The number one way to normalize nudism is to talk about it.” That means you shouldn’t remain secretive about your enjoyment of nudity. All the rest depends on overcoming the secrecy.

    The 6 points, with explanations, are:

    1. Educate your kids on naturism
    2. Squash any myths and misconceptions
    3. Invite friends to try nudism
    4. Spread the word about the benefits of nudism
    5. Embrace your nudist lifestyle
    6. Use your knowledge for the greater good


    I’d make a few comments on these points. In general, keep it simple by treating the terms “naturism” and “nudism” as interchangeable, without trying to explain why some might prefer one term over the other.

    Here are a few more specifics, in the same order:

    1. Unless family nudity has been common since your children were very young, this will be difficult. They’ll probably already have picked up negative attitudes towards nudity from peers and others. Expect that teaching them differently will become increasingly difficult as they get older. Here’s an article with excellent advice.
    2. Debunking the myths is the first point that should be addressed. The misconceptions about naturism are many and widespread. Give some thought to how you would refute any of the myths, based on your own experiences with naturism.
    3. Before inviting friends to try naturism, you’ll first have to debunk the misconceptions, explain the benefits, and have them accept that nudity is now “normal” for you, in whatever way suits you best.
    4. Naturism has many different benefits for physical health, general psychological well-being, and other practical benefits. The benefits are discussed extensively in naturist blogs and naturist organization Web sites. Do the research, and make your own list. Try to emphasize particular benefits depending on who you’re talking with.
    5. Embracing naturism as a “lifestyle” means being naked whenever that’s practical and comfortable for you. That’s the best way to persuade others you value the lifestyle.
    6. This will take commitment on your part. It means advocating for naturism among your friends and relatives, using social media to explain and promote naturism, and maybe even starting your own local naturist group.

  3. Mother and daughter are photographed naked, facing ruined sites of China

    Finding nudity used for artistic purposes is surprising in an authoritarian and rigidly conformist Asian society like China. Genuinely good art is not only esthetically pleasing (usually), but often communicates ideas, emotions, and physical sensations as well. When the art is visual and also involves nudity it not only attracts attention to itself, but also affords the viewer a vicarious experience of the scene in the naked flesh. According to the article, “the project intends to discuss the irresistible force of time with an unexpected, raw, yet beautiful approach.”

  4. The Aspie and the Nudie

    If you don’t suspect you may be on the “Asperger’s spectrum” or know someone who could be, you might not find this long post of much interest. However, it deals with the intersection of naturism and Asperger’s. There’s one trait that is often shared. According to one quote, “Aspies are not influenced by peer pressure or social "norms". Their independent thinking resists and challenges conformity and convention.”

    It’s tough being a naturist without that trait, no? This isn’t to say there’s anything aberrant about it. Questioning social “norms” is quite healthy, because many don’t exist for good reasons, but only due to arbitrary, haphazard customs. A prime example, especially if you live in an excessively conformist society, is the compulsive “need” to wear clothes when nudity would be more comfortable.

  5. ‘When you do put your clothes back on, you’re changed’: The nudists of Killiney


    It’s really quite striking – astonishing, actually – to see how differently naturism is treated by legacy media (such as newspapers) in the U. S. when compared to corresponding media in some countries of Europe that are farther along in shedding antiquated attitudes towards nudity. That includes Ireland, which used to be dominated by backward-looking institutions like the Catholic Church. As has been reported in this blog, naturism has recently become surprisingly popular in Ireland, much as in the UK.

    In the article here, a reporter interviews naturists enjoying a class, fully naked, in Qigong on a public Irish beach. Instead of expressing bewildered amazement that normal people would do something like that, the reporter allows the interviewees to describe their feelings and motivations in their own words and at some length.

    One perception that comes across is how natural and unexceptionable it can be to engage in an activity like a Qigong class while wearing nothing in a public place with others. One interviewee, artist Ciara Boud, “doesn’t mind being referred to as a naturist, she just sees herself as someone who chooses to ‘wear or not wear what she wants to’.” Ciara remarked further:
    Bodies are quite boring, … Once they’ve been out on display for a little while, you’re like, ‘that’s a t*t and that’s an ass’, and nobody cares and nobody’s looking, and nobody is even thinking of your body in a broken down structure of ‘those are the sexual bits and those are not’.



  6. Australian veterinary student calendars


    Selling calendars that feature (carefully limited) nudity to fund some worthy cause has been going on for over 20 years – perhaps most famously with the “Calendar Girls” of the Women’s Institutes. The story of that effort was even made into a play and a movie. The same idea has also been used by athletic teams in colleges and universities, especially in the UK – too many to note separately.

    It’s also been a popular idea in Australia, as in the present example. In this case, students of the University of Sydney’s Doctor of Veterinary Medicine school have been producing such calendars annually in “a decade-long, charitable tradition”. Although the 2021 calendar is no longer available, the calendar’s website, called bumsforthebush, has pictures and a video documenting the project.


    The tradition has been carried on by students at other veterinary schools in Australia, notably at North Queensland’s James Cook University – reported here, here, and here. The website for this effort is called Vets Uncovered and there are some YouTube videos.

    One has to wonder: Why hasn’t this idea spread to vet schools in the U. S.? (But it’s probably because the U. S. is decades behind in appreciating the cultural value of non-sexual nudity.)

  7. Naked Travel Possibilities

    The idea of recommending vacation places for women to enjoy naked is rather novel, so here’s another post from gogirlfriend.com. But it’s disappointing. This one states “We’ve found 3 places here in the US where you can try naked travel on for size. If you’re a first-timer, go with your girlfriends or your partner – not a group of couples. And remember, taking your clothes off is the hardest part – it gets simpler and more fun after that.” While that’s good advice for newbies, the suggestions are pretty weak. Burning Man isn’t planned for 2021, and even World Naked Bike Rides will be few and far between. The only safe bet of the three is Black’s Beach just north of San Diego. A quality naturist resort such as Laguna del Sol in California or one of several possibilities in Florida would probably be better options.